The genesis of the art school began in Tanforan, a racetrack just outside of San Francisco, where about 8000 people of Japanese descent were confined until Topaz was built. Half of the people in Tanforan were living in horse stalls turned into makeshift barracks with just a hurried whitewash over the walls and linoleum on top of the manure-covered floors.
As a child in Japan, Chiura Obata began studying sumi-e painting, a traditional Japanese brush technique using various shades of black ink. Years later after immigrating to the U.S. he became an art instructor at University of California, Berkeley.
Chiura Obata painting, “Topaz War Relocation Center by Moonlight,” ca 1943
When World War II broke out, he could have relocated early by going to St. Louis to live with his son who was studying architecture, but instead he chose to remain with his Japanese friends who were swept away to an assembly center at Tanforan. He felt his passion for art could help in their time of need.
At Tanforan, Obata started an art school because of his desire to continue painting, of course, but also to give people distressed by internment the opportunity to immerse themselves in the beauty of art and its creative healing power.
The school burgeoned to over 600 students ranging in ages from 6 and up. Students could attend five levels of instruction from elementary to adult education classes. Sixteen teachers taught 95 classes per week on 23 subjects, including figure drawing, still life, architectural drawing, anatomy, and commercial art.
Since few internees had access to cameras, in situ drawings provided a visual diary of daily life in Tanforan. Once the internees moved to Topaz in September 1942, the subject matter tended to broaden to portraits and landscapes.
Other instructors for the school included George Matsusaburo Hibi and his wife, Hisako Hibi, Mine' Okubo, Byron Takashi Tsuzuki, and Charles Erabu Suiko Mikami.
The school thrived based on the personal philosophy of the artists and the encouraging philosophy of the school. Artists produced a wealth of work that was displayed at Topaz and is still the heart of all Japanese American internment art.
When Chiura Obata left Topaz in 1943, George Matsusaburo Hibi took over the leadership of the school. Hibi expressed his philosophy by saying, “Training in art maintains high ideals among our people, for its object is to prevent their minds from remaining on the plains, to encourage human spirits to dwell high above the mountains.”
Artists and teachers continued to produce art to document their circumstances and conditions of internment and to elevate their souls beyond their stark surroundings. The school remained a popular part of camp life until Topaz closed on Oct. 31, 1945.
For more information about the Topaz Art School read "Topaz Moon" by Kimi Kodani Hill, "Citizen 13660" by Mine' Okubo, "The Art of Gaman" by Delphine Hirasuna, and "Peaceful Painter" by Hisako Hibi.